T Flip-Flop: Circuit, Truth Table and Working

The term digital in electronics represents the data generation, processing or storing in the form of two states. The two states can be represented as HIGH or LOW, positive or non-positive, set or reset which is ultimately binary. The high is 1 and low is 0 and hence the digital technology is expressed as series of 0’s and 1’s. An example is 011010 in which each term represents an individual state. Thus, this latching process in hardware is done using certain components like latch or Flip-flop, Multiplexer, Demultiplexer, Encoders, Decoders and etc collectively called as Sequential logic circuits.

So, we are going to discuss about the Flip-flops also called as latches. The latches can also be understood as Bistable Multivibrator as two stable states. Generally, these latch circuits can be either active-high or active-low and they can be triggered by HIGH or LOW signals respectively.

The common types of flip-flops are,

  1. RS Flip-flop (RESET-SET)
  2. D Flip-flop (Data)
  3. JK Flip-flop (Jack-Kilby)
  4. T Flip-flop (Toggle)

Out of the above types only JK and D flip-flops are available in the integrated IC form and also used widely in most of the applications. Here in this article we will discuss about T Flip Flop.

 

T Flip-flop:

The name T flip-flop is termed from the nature of toggling operation. The major applications of T flip-flop are counters and control circuits. T flip flop is modified form of JK flip-flop making it to operate in toggling region.

Whenever the clock signal is LOW, the input is never going to affect the output state. The clock has to be high for the inputs to get active. Thus, T flip-flop is a controlled Bi-stable latch where the clock signal is the control signal. Thus, the output has two stable states based on the inputs which have been discussed below.

T flip-flop symbol

 

Truth Table of T Flip Flop:

Clock

INPUT

OUTPUT

RESET

T

Q

Q’

X

LOW

X

0

1

HIGH

HIGH

0

No Change

HIGH

HIGH

1

Toggle

LOW

HIGH

X

No Change

The T flip flop is the modified form of JK flip flop. The Q and Q’ represents the output states of the flip-flop. According to the table, based on the input the output changes its state. But, the important thing to consider is all these can occur only in the presence of the clock signal. This, works unlike SR flip Flop & JK flip-flop for the complimentary inputs. This only has the toggling function.

 

RESET:

The RESET pin has to be active HIGH. All the pins will become inactive upon LOW at RESET pin. Hence, this pin always pulled up and can be pulled down only when needed.

 

IC Package:;

JK flip-flop ic MC74HC73A pin diagram

Q

True Output

Q’

Compliment Output

CLOCK

Clock Input

J

Data input 1

K

Data input 2

RESET

Direct RESET (Low activated)

GND

Ground

VCC

Supply voltage

The IC used is MC74HC73A (Dual JK-type flip-flop with RESET). It is a 14 pin package which contains 2 individual JK flip-flop inside. Above are the pin diagram and the corresponding description of the pins. The J and K inputs will be shorted and used as T input.

 

Components Required:

  1. MC74HC73A (Dual JK flip-flop) – 1No.
  2. LM7805 – 1No.
  3. Tactile Switch – 3No.
  4. 9V battery – 1No.
  5. LED (Green – 1; Red – 1)
  6. Resistors (1kὨ - 3; 220kὨ -2)
  7. Breadboard
  8. Connecting wires

 

T Flip-flop Circuit diagram and Explanation:

T flip-flop circuit diagram with IC-MC74HC73A

The IC power source VDD ranges from 0 to +7V and the data is available in the datasheet. Below snapshot shows it. Also we have used LED at output, the source has been limited to 5V to control the supply voltage and DC output voltage. We have used a LM7805 regulator to limit the LED voltage. 

JK flip-flop ic MC74HC73A datasheet

 

Practical Demonstration of T Flip-Flop:

The buttons T(Toggle), R(Reset), CLK(Clock) are the inputs for the T flip-flop. The two LEDs Q and Q’ represents the output states of the flip-flop. The 9V battery acts as the input to the voltage regulator LM7805. Hence, the regulated 5V output is used as the Vcc and pin supply to the IC. Thus, for HIGH and LOW inputs at T the corresponding output can be seen through LED Q and Q’.

 

The pins T, CLK are normally pulled down and pin R is pulled up. Hence, default input state will be LOW across all the pins except R which is in High state for normal operation. Thus, the initial state according to the truth table is as shown above. Q=1, Q’=0. The LEDs used are current limited using 220Ohm resistor.

T Flip-Flop: Initial state Clock,T = low, R=1

Note: Since the CLOCK is HIGH to LOW edge triggered, both input button should be pressed and hold till releasing the CLOCK button.

Below we have described the various states of T Flip-Flop using a Breadboard circuit with ICMC74HC73A. A demonstration Video is also given below.

 

State 1:

Clock– HIGH ; T – 1 ; R – 1 ; Q/Q’ – Toggle between two states.

For the State 1 HIGH inputs at T and clock, the RED and GREEN led glows alternatively for each clock pulse (HIGH to LOW edge) indicating the toggling action. The output toggles from the previous state to another state and this process continues for each clock pulse as shown below.

For first clock pulse with T=1

T flip-flop working state Clock HIGH, T-1, R-1 first clock

 

For second clock pulse with T=1

T flip-flop working state Clock HIGH, T-1, R-1 second clock

 

State 2:

Clock– LOW ; T – 0 ; R – 1 ; Q – 0 ; Q’ – 1

The State 2 output shows that the input changes does not affect under this state. The output RED led glows indicating the Q’ to be HIGH and GREEN led shows Q to be LOW. This state is stable and stays there until the next clock and input is applied with RESET as HIGH pulse.

T flip-flop working state Clock low T-0,R-1, no change

T flip-flop working state Clock low T-0,R-1, no change

 

State 3: The remaining states are No change states during which the output will similar to previous output state. The changes do not affect the output states, you can verify with the Truth Table given above.

 

The complete working and all the states are also demonstrated in the Video below.

Video: 

Comments (2)

  • William De La Rosa's picture
    William De La Rosa

    Thank you, very easy to do, and clear lesson, I appreciate your effort. Awesome.
    have a wonderful day.

    Oct 03, 2017
  • James Menos's picture
    James Menos

    I need to build a very small board with a receiver flip-flop circuit

    to operate remotely on and off 20 tiny LEDs in a string. Can you help

    I am new to electronics

    Thank you  

    Oct 31, 2017

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