RF Controlled Robot without Microcontroller

In present time almost all the people are familiar with robots. Robots play a very important role in human life. Robots are a machine which reduces the human efforts in heavy works in industries, building etc. and makes life easy. In Our previous Projects we have made some robots like line follower, DTMF controlled robot, gesture controlled robot, computer controlled robot, but in this tutorial we are going to design a very interesting robot, that is RF controlled Robot. Interesting thing in this project is that it will run without using any microcontroller. Here we will run it directly by RF Decoder and Motor Driver.

Block Diagram for RF Controlled Robot

RF controlled robot is controlled by using Four push button placed at transmitter side. Here we only need to push the buttons to control the robot. A transmitting device is used in your hand which also contains a RF Transmitter and a RF Encoder. This transmitter part will transmit command to robot so that it can do the required task like moving forward, reverse, turning left, turning right and stop. All these tasks will perform by using four push buttons that are placed on RF transmitter.


Required Components

  • DC Motor - 2
  • HT12D - 1
  • HT12E - 1
  • RF Pair - 1
  • Motor Driver L293D - 1
  • 9 Volt Battery - 3
  • Battery Connector - 3
  • Connecting wires
  • Robot Chasis - 1
  • 7805 - 2
  • 750K resistor - 1
  • 33K resistor - 1
  • 1K Resistor  - 1
  • PCB                                       


L293D Motor Driver

L293D is a motor driver IC which has two channels for driving two motors. L293D has Two inbuilt Transistor Darlington pair for current amplification and an separate power supply pin for giving external supply for motors.

L293D Motor Driver IC


RF Transmitter and  Receiver

This is a ASK Hybrid Transmitter and receiver module operates at 433Mhz frequency. This module has a crystal stabilized oscillator for maintain accurate frequency control for best range. There we have to need only one antenna externally for this module.

RF Transmitter and Receiver

RF Transmitter Features:

  • Frequency Range: 433 Mhz
  • Output Power: 4-16dBm
  • Input supply: 3 to 12 volt dc


RF Receiver Features:

  • Sensitivity: -105dBm
  • IF Frequency : 1MHz
  • Low Power Consumption
  • Current 3.5 mA
  • Supply voltage: 5 volt


This Module is very cost efficient where long range RF communication is required. This module does not send data using UART communication of PC or microcontroller directly because there is lots of noise at this frequency and its Analog technology. We can use this module with the help of encoder and decoder ICs which extract data from the noise.

The range of transmitter is about 100 meters at maximum supply voltage and for 5 volt the range of transmitter is about 50-60 meter with using a simple wire of single code 17cm length antenna.  


Pin Description of RF Tx

  1. GND - Ground supply
  2. Data In - This pin accept serial data from encoder
  3. Vcc - +5 Volt should be connect to this pin
  4. Antenna - A wrapped connect to this pin for proper transmission of data


Pin Description of RF Rx

  1. GND - Ground
  2. Data In - This pin give output serial data to Decoder
  3. Data In - This pin give output serial data to Decoder
  4. Vcc - +5 Volt should be connect to this pin
  5. Vcc - +5 Volt should be connect to this pin
  6. GND - Ground
  7. GND - Ground
  8. Antenna - A wrapped connect to this pin for proper Reception of data


Circuit Diagrams and Explanation

Circuit Diagram for RF Transmitter:

RF Transmitter Circuit Diagram


Circuit Diagram for RF Receiver:

RF Controlled Robot Circuit Diagram - Receiver


As shown in above figures, circuit diagrams for RF controlled robot are quite simple where a RF pair is used for communication. Connections for transmitter and receiver show in circuit diagrams. Two 9 volt batteries are used to power the motor driver and remaining Rx Circuit. And another 9 Volt battery is used to power the transmitter.


RF Controlled Robot has two main parts namely:

  1. Transmitter part
  2. Receiver part

[Also check: RF Transmitter and Receiver Circuit]

In transmitter part a data Encoder and a RF transmitter is used. As we have already mentioned above that we are using four push buttons to run the robot, these four buttons are connected with Encoder with respect to ground. When we will press any button encoder will get a digital LOW signal and then applied this signal serially to RF transmitter. The Encoder IC HT12E encodes data or signal or converting it into serial form and then sends this signal by using RF transmitter into the environment.

RF Transmitter

At the receiver end we have used RF receiver to receive data or signal and then applied to HT12D decoder. This decoder IC converts the received serial data to parallel and then send these decoded signal to L293D Motor driver IC. According to the received data robot runs by using two dc motor in forward, reverse, left, right and stop direction.

RF Receiver


Working of RF Controlled Robot:

RF controlled robot move according to button pressed at Transmitter.

Button Pressed at Transmitter

Moving Direction of Robot

First (1)


Second (2)


First and Second (1 & 2)


Third and Fourth (3 & 4)


No Button Pressed



When we press first button (1 mention on circuit and hardware) robot start to moving left side and moving continues until the button is released.

Turning Left to RF Controlled Robot


When we press second button at transmitter, robot start moving in right side until button is released.

Turning Right to RF Controlled Robot


When we press first and second button at the same time, Robot start moving in forward direction until push buttons are released.

Forward moving to RF Controlled Robot


When we press third and fourth button at the same time, robot start moving in backward direction and keep going until push buttons are released.

Backward direction


And when no push Button is pressed, robot stops.

Stop the RF Controlled Robot


Comments (53)

  • beginer's picture

    how to connect push buttons to encoder?

    Dec 29, 2015
  • Maddy's picture

    You can check the Circuit Diagram for RF Transmitter above and connect RF Tx module to HT12E along with Push buttons. You can assemble the whole Transmitter circuit on PCB. Check here for making PCB

    Jan 01, 2016
  • priyadarshini's picture

    sir,we dnt need any program codings

    Feb 04, 2016
  • Jayant's picture

    This is a RF Robot without any microcontroller, so since we haven't used any microcontroller, we don't need any program code.

    Feb 06, 2016
  • Asif's picture

    Simulation folder ?

    Feb 13, 2016
  • Vishal Ahuja's picture
    Vishal Ahuja

    I have made this one and it worked perfect but there is a problem, if try to used any other power source other than 9v battery, motor on switch s4.2 and s4.3 starts misbehaving such as after leaving the switch it keeps on running, so i have to turn off the power and on again.
    Any suggestions ??

    Feb 18, 2016
  • Abhishek's picture

    What power source are you using? Also check you circuit connections.

    Feb 23, 2016
  • ahmedzaib's picture

    what is m1 and m2

    Mar 17, 2016
  • Jayant's picture

    M1 and M2 are the two DC motors to rotate the wheels of Robot.

    Mar 28, 2016
  • Anirudh Hari's picture
    Anirudh Hari

    Can any advancement done in this circuit ??
    If so what kind ?

    Mar 23, 2016
  • aswathy's picture

    sir ,i need the pcb layout of TXR section,will u plz help me

    Apr 06, 2016
  • Maddy's picture

    There are so many softwares are available for Schematic to PCB layout conversion like Easy EDA, Fritzing etc.

    Apr 18, 2016
  • rijil's picture

    My ckt is not working.
    What kind of motors are that
    Is it dc brush motors

    Jun 06, 2016
  • rijil's picture

    Transmitter and recievers are working but motor driver and motors are not working
    Plz help me its urgent

    Jun 06, 2016
  • suman acharya's picture
    suman acharya

    i have four pin receiver.how to connect. can u upload the schematic for 4 pin

    Jul 02, 2016
  • Maddy's picture

    With 3-pin RF transmitter and receiver modules, you don't need to connect Encoder & decoder and circuit will be changed accordingly. Check this Article https://www(dot)elprocus(dot)com/rf-module-transmitter-receiver/ for understand the connections.

    Jul 12, 2016
  • mounika's picture

    what are the main applications of rf based remote controlled car?

    Jul 03, 2016
  • ashish's picture

    which type of diaode are u using not mentioned above but give in diagram

    Jul 05, 2016
  • pravin kumhar's picture
    pravin kumhar

    can i use other antena insted of other wire

    Jul 09, 2016
  • jose reyes's picture
    jose reyes

    excuse the LED must always be on even if you have armed the issuer but is single receiver

    Aug 11, 2016
  • Karan Chanchlani's picture
    Karan Chanchlani

    we are making this project using 4 wheels,my question is will the above circuit diagram is valid for 4 wheels project..coz its our final year project?? hope u reply soon

    Aug 23, 2016
  • Dave Davidson's picture
    Dave Davidson

    Do the resistors in the receiver circuit limit the amount of current going to the motors. Are the motors getting the full 9 volts of the battery because your car seems quite slow for that amount of voltage.
    Please Reply.

    Aug 30, 2016
  • Abhishek's picture

    No, resistors are not for limiting the current to the Motors. Even we have used Motor Driver IC L293D to drive more current, you can further use more powerful battery (or fresh 9v Batteries) according to the motors.

    Sep 17, 2016
  • Stefan's picture

    It is not exactly the robot , it is an radio controled car. To be a robot have to install the firmware...

    Aug 31, 2016
  • Bhupender kumar's picture
    Bhupender kumar

    Where to buy these all components

    Oct 07, 2016
  • Jimson's picture

    Sirs, my circuit is not working. LED is off initially, and when the receiver is supplied, the motors don't run. What to do? Is there any software for simulation?

    Oct 14, 2016
  • sandeep's picture

    sir what are applications of this rf controlled robots. I have got a project to do a robot which contains LDR, PIR, LM35, IR along with what you used above. Is that possible. Please do reply.

    Oct 16, 2016
  • sreekanth mallemoni's picture
    sreekanth mallemoni

    Can i use this instead of the robot...
    .. and how to increase the range.... rply me soon

    Oct 24, 2016
  • mashood's picture

    i want the program for controlling the dc motors using two switches for moving forward and backward by using rf module to pic16f877a.

    Nov 10, 2016
  • Raj's picture

    What is the range of the rf module that you have used. I all want it be be obstacle avoiding robot. How can i convert it into that.

    Nov 20, 2016
  • Abhishek's picture

    Better use Ultrasonic or IR sensor for obstacle avoiding robot, search on this website for these robots

    Dec 02, 2016
  • Krishna Kant's picture
    Krishna Kant

    This article only shows on how to make RF controlled robot without microcontroller. However, We guys tried to make a Wireless Robot Control Using RF Module where this project aims of a similar wireless remote controlling applicable to two-wheel drive robots. The wireless remote is a 434 RF module and the robot is driven on DC motors controlled by an L293D motor driver IC. Typically, 434 RF modules have a range of 50-60 metre but can be extended up to 300-350 metre. So, after extending the operational range of RF module, the RC robot will have an impressive distance to wander around. Learn more about extending the operational range of RF modules here []

    Dec 15, 2016
  • prashant's picture

    I have made the same but after leaving the switch it remains turn on.
    I have not connected 293. First I am checking only for signal receiving... but signal remains turn on

    Dec 17, 2016
  • Asaint 's picture

    How can I connect four motors if I want to use it with PWM circuit for a quadcopter control?
    Pls am waiting!

    Jan 06, 2017
  • Abimbola Olawale's picture
    Abimbola Olawale

    Wow..i love this rc circuit. Have been looking for this type of circuit that is quite simple for me as a beginner in electronics..

    Jan 29, 2017
  • vsp's picture

    whats the specification of dc motors

    Feb 02, 2017
  • sagar's picture

    Plz any body tell what is voltage and rpm value of gear dc motors

    Feb 25, 2017
  • Maddy's picture

    These are simple 5v DC motors.

    Feb 27, 2017
  • Anand 's picture

    Very simple and nice circuit. I done it and it working properly.

    Feb 16, 2017
  • deepchandra's picture

    hello sir i am a diploma 2nd year student , i have reciber and tranmitter and motor driver.
    but i dont conectin of motor driver with reciver. plese help me.

    Feb 21, 2017
  • Sagar's picture

    Sir, when we press push button 1 then which serial code goes to encoder ic and which data is transferred to rf emitter... Is 0111 serial code goes to encoder? Plz give diagram for flow of data in circuit

    Feb 23, 2017
  • Bulu's picture

    Sir where is the 33k resistor connected to??

    Mar 10, 2017
  • Anand patel's picture
    Anand patel

    sir,we dnt need any program codings & any programs so please give me a link....

    Mar 13, 2017
  • hari's picture

    sir I arranged the circuit step by step on bread board but It doesn't working.. I don't l know where fault is?? shall you help me where frequently faults happen??

    Mar 15, 2017
  • shyam's picture

    My ckt led not working what i do plz sir help me

    Apr 24, 2017
  • ajilal's picture

    How can choose the resistance for different pair of ics( oscillator resistance)

    Aug 14, 2017
  • anil Kanzariya's picture
    anil Kanzariya

    dear sir...

    I am doing this project but I how to increase the range of this project more than 1000 meter,..plz give me replay!!!

    Sep 26, 2017
  • Atul's picture

    sir ,
    i need the RF Controlled robot pcb layout of TX R section,will u plz help me

    Sep 29, 2017
  • Himanshu Sen's picture
    Himanshu Sen

    What should be connected in place of antenna

    Oct 15, 2017
  • adila's picture

    i need Rx &Tx circuit diagrams using rf technology and webcam app will you plz help me
    plz send both circuit diagrams in to my mail because march 25 is my project external so plz send because my batch mets donot prepare documentation plz help me

    Mar 16, 2018

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