Interfacing 1.54-inch E-Paper Display with Arduino UNO

Arduino

ByAshish Mishra 0

Interfacing 1.54-inch E-Paper Display with Arduino UNO

E-paper, often known as electronic paper, is a type of technology that imitates the look of ink on paper. Electronic paper displays differ from LCD panels in a way that they reflect rather than emitting light, similar to paper. In this tutorial, we will see the brief introduction and working of E-Paper display and we will interface this small E-paper display with Arduino UNO. We can interface it with other boards also for example – Raspberry Pi, STM32, and jetson. Here, we will print characters and images in the E-paper display and at the end of this tutorial, we will also see the power consumption and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of E-Paper display.

Introduction to 1.54-Inch E-Paper Display

1.54 inch E-Paper Display

Waveshare's 1.54-inch e-Ink Paper Display Module with SPI Interface has a resolution of 200x200 pixels and has an embedded controller module. It communicates through the SPI interface and allows for a partial refresh. These displays offer a huge advantage of ultra-low power consumption because they don't have backlight panels and don't require a continuous power supply to display the (static data with periodic intervals) data on the screen. It also offers a broad viewing angle and a good viewing effect in the sun, making it an excellent choice for shelf labels, industrial instruments, and other similar applications. In this tutorial, we are going to use a 1.54-inch E-Paper display which costs around 15$.

Features of E-Paper Display

  • No backlight keeps displaying last content for a long time even when power down
  • Ultra-low power consumption, basically power is only required for refreshing
  • SPI interface, for connecting with controller boards like Raspberry Pi/Arduino/Nucleo, etc.
  • Onboard voltage translator, compatible with 3.3V/5V MCUs
  • Comes with development resources and manual (examples for Raspberry Pi/Jetson Nano/Arduino/STM32)

Specifications of E-Paper Display

  • Operating voltage: 3.3V/5V
  • Interface: 3-wire SPI, 4-wire SPI
  • Outline dimension: 48mm × 33mm
  • Display size: 27.6mm × 27.6mm
  • Dot pitch: 0.138 × 0.138
  • Resolution: 200 × 200
  • Display color: black, white
  • Grey level: 2
  • Partial refresh time: 0.3s
  • Full refresh time: 2s
  • Refresh power: 26.4mW (typ.)
  • Standby power: <0.017mW
  • Viewing angle: >170°

Working Principle of e-Paper Display

E-paper display is based on Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Display (MED) technology which is one of the famous image display technology. In this technology, the first step is to make microscopic spheres in which charged color pigments are suspended in clear oil and move in response to the electronic charge. In the E-paper display, there is no background light because the E-paper screen displays patterns by reflecting ambient light.  The E-paper screen offers a wide viewing angle of 180 degrees and is very visible in ambient light so because of the wide range of viewing angles, E-paper displays are widely used in Digital tablets for E-reading. We should not use this display in direct sunlight because it doesn’t have any backlight.

Communication Protocol of E-Paper Display

E-Paper display communicates through SPI protocol but the SPI protocol used here is slightly different from standard SPI protocol. Here SPI only has display requirements so the data line from the slave to the master is buried, unlike the standard SPI protocol. In the below table, we can see the Pin description of the E-Paper display.

Pin

Description

VCC

3.3V/5V

GND

Ground

DIN

SPI MOSI pin

CLK

SPI SCK pin

CS

SPI chip selection, low active

CS

Data/Command selection (high for data, low for command)

RST

External reset, low active

BUSY

Busy status output, high active

Now, we will see the working of SPI protocol in E-Paper display:

(a) When CS is low, the chip is enabled, and when CS is high, the chip is disabled.

(b) DC is the data/command control pin; if DC is 0, write command; if DC is 1, and write data.

(c) The SPI communication clock is known as SCLK.

(d) In SPI communication, the data line from the master to the slave is known as SDIN.

The data transfer timing of SPI communication is combined by CPHA and CPOL.

1- At idle state, CPOL determines the level of the serial synchronous clock. When CPOL equals 0, the level is considered low. CPOL, on the other hand, has little influence on transmission.

2- When CPHL = 0, data is collected at the first clock edge of the serial synchronous clock; when CPHL = 1, data is collected at the second clock edge of the serial synchronous clock.

(e) There are four SPI communication options to choose from. The SPI0 method is widely used, with CPHL = 0 and CPOL = 0. Data transmission begins at the first falling edge of SCLK, as shown in the diagram below, and 8 bits of data are communicated in one clock cycle. SPI0 is utilized here, and data is transmitted in bits, MSB first.

E-Paper Display Communication Protocol

Interfacing of E-paper Display with Arduino UNO

Now, we are going to interface a 1.5-inch E-Paper display with Arduino UNO. The E-Paper display offers a resolution of 200x200pixels which is great and uses the SPI interface. E-Paper display supports a 3.3V display so Vcc must be connected to the 3.3V output of the Arduino Uno. The other pins of the display are 5V tolerant. The second pin is GND and it connects to the GND pin of Arduino UNO. The third pin is named DIN and it connects to Digital Pin 11. The fourth pin is CLK and it connects to Digital Pin 13. The fifth pin (CS) connects to digital pin 10, the 6th pin (DC) connects to digital pin 9, the 7th pin (RST) connects to digital pin 8 (BUSY) and the last pin connects to digital pin 7.

E-Paper Pins

Arduino UNO Pins

3.3V

3.3V

GND

GND

DIN

D11

CLK

D13

CS

D10

DC

D9

RST

D8

BUSY

D7

Here, in below figure we have shown hardware connection of Arduino UNO and 1.54-inch E-Paper display.

Interfacing E-Paper Display with Arduino UNO Circuit Diagram

In the below image you can see actual hardware image of interfacing circuit of E-Paper display and Arduino UNO.

Arduino with E-Paper Display

Code Explanation:

Now, we are going to print the CircuitDigest logo on E-paper display with a welcome message. So to do this first we will open Arduino IDE software and start writing code. We are going to explain some important lines of code so firstly, we are going to use the below libraries. You can download these libraries and code using this link. Here we have used spi.h library for SPI communication and imagedata.h library for printing images on E-Paper display.

#include <SPI.h>
#include "epd1in54_V2.h"
#include "imagedata.h"
#include "epdpaint.h"
#include <stdio.h>

Here are using Serial.println function to print the statement “welcome to” in the first line. We have only two colors for the E-Paper display, first one is the black and the second one is white. So we have used Paint.DrawString to give color and size to text. Same thing we have done for the next line “Circuit Digest”.

  Serial.println("WELCOME TO");
  paint.Clear(COLORED);
  paint.DrawStringAt(30, 4, "WELCOME TO", &Font16, UNCOLORED);
  epd.SetFrameMemory(paint.GetImage(), 0, 10, paint.GetWidth(), paint.GetHeight());
  paint.Clear(UNCOLORED);
  paint.DrawStringAt(30, 4, "CIRCUIT DIGEST", &Font16, COLORED);
  epd.SetFrameMemory(paint.GetImage(), 0, 30, paint.GetWidth(), paint.GetHeight());
  paint.SetWidth(64);
  paint.SetHeight(64);
  epd.DisplayFrame();
  delay(2000);

Now, are going to display the logo of the CircuitDigest. So first we have to generate HEX for the image. HEX code for an image can be generated by using a converter like Image2cpp. To learn more about how to use Image2cpp, follow this Arduino QR code generator tutorial. Here, we have given the hex code for the CircuitDigest logo. We have to write this code in imagedata.cpp library.

const unsigned char IMAGE_DATA[] PROGMEM = {
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
…………………………………..
…………………………………..
};

In the below images, you can see the circuit digest logo on the E-Paper display. Here, we have used very few lines and one image to print it on E-Paper display but it consumed a lot of memory of Arduino – UNO so we need to use another board with more memory like the ESP8266, the ESP32, STM32, and Raspberry Pi. E-Paper display can update part of the display, without updating the whole display. Refreshing the entire display takes around 2 seconds and a lot of currents, this is really beneficial. The updating of a portion of the display, on the other hand, is quick and does not require a lot of current.

E-Paper Display with Arduino UNO

Power Consumption in E-Paper Display

Now, we are going to measure power consumption in the E-Paper display using a USB current meter. When the E-Paper display is updating then it needs lots of current (around 7-9mA) and when the display is not updating then it draws only 0.02 mA current. So power consumption is very less in the E-Paper display. We can use an E-Paper display in battery-powered projects. Even project cab run on battery for months. Here in the below image, you can see two different power consumption during updating and after updating, here we are getting higher values because we are measuring the current value including Arduino-UNO.

E-Paper Display Power Consumption

Advantages of E-Paper Display

E-Paper or Electronic paper display does not emit light but reflects. These displays are not like traditional LCD or OLED displays. It is like the ink on the paper. This characteristic makes e-paper displays very comfortable to read, and they have excellent readability under direct sunlight. Another great thing about e-paper displays is that they can hold static text and images for months without electricity. The display can show text and images even when it is off! That makes e-paper displays ideal for low-powered projects.

Disadvantages of E-Paper Display

The price of an E-paper display is very high as compared to other displays. Another significant disadvantage is that E-Paper displays take a lot of time to update, as much as 2-3 seconds. So, they are only helpful for static text and images and not for animations. So these displays are used for only reading purposes. We cannot use an E-Paper display for animations and videos.

So, this is how you can interface Arduino UNO with an E-paper display. I want to add one thing at the end of this tutorial, this 1.5-inch E-Paper display is updated to a 1.54-inch E-Paper V2 version, and the code of the two versions is not compatible with each other so you should not use epd1in54.h libraries for this display. You should use apd1in54_V2.h library for this display. In this tutorial, we have learned how to print the character and images in the E-paper display. Hope you enjoyed the project and learned something useful, if you have any questions, please leave them in the comment section below or use our forum to start a discussion on this.

Code

#include <SPI.h>
#include "epd1in54_V2.h"
#include "imagedata.h"
#include "epdpaint.h"
#include <stdio.h>
Epd epd;
unsigned char image[1024];
Paint paint(image, 0, 0);
unsigned long time_start_ms;
unsigned long time_now_s;
#define COLORED     0
#define UNCOLORED   1
void setup()
{
  // put your setup code here, to run once:
  Serial.begin(115200);
  Serial.println("e-Paper init and clear");
  epd.LDirInit();
  epd.Clear();
  paint.SetWidth(200);
  paint.SetHeight(24);
  Serial.println("WELCOME TO");
  paint.Clear(COLORED);
  paint.DrawStringAt(30, 4, "WELCOME TO", &Font16, UNCOLORED);
  epd.SetFrameMemory(paint.GetImage(), 0, 10, paint.GetWidth(), paint.GetHeight());
  paint.Clear(UNCOLORED);
  paint.DrawStringAt(30, 4, "CIRCUIT DIGEST", &Font16, COLORED);
  epd.SetFrameMemory(paint.GetImage(), 0, 30, paint.GetWidth(), paint.GetHeight());
  paint.SetWidth(64);
  paint.SetHeight(64);
  epd.DisplayFrame();
  delay(2000);
  Serial.println("e-Paper show pic");
  // epd.Display(IMAGE_DATA);
  //Part display
  epd.HDirInit();
  epd.DisplayPartBaseImage(IMAGE_DATA);
  paint.SetWidth(50);
  paint.SetHeight(60);
}
void loop()
{
}
imagedata.cpp library
#include "imagedata.h"
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
const unsigned char IMAGE_DATA[] PROGMEM = {
/* 0X00,0X01,0XC8,0X00,0XC8,0X00, */
// 'unnamed, 200x200px
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
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