Fire Alarm Project

Fire alarms are prime necessities in modern buildings and architectures, especially in banks, data centers and gas stations. They detects the fire in ambiance at very early stage by sensing smoke or/and heat and raise an alarm which warns people about the fire and furnish sufficient time to take preventive measures. It not only prevents a big losses caused by deadly fire but sometimes proves to be life savers. Here we are building one simple fire alarm system with the help of 555 Timer IC, which will sense the fire (temperature rise in surrounding), and trigger the alarm.

The key component of the circuit is Thermistor, which has been used as fire detector or fire sensor. Thermistor is temperature sensitive resistor, whose resistance changes according to the temperature, its resistance decreases with the increase in temperature and vice versa.

We have built the circuit using, mainly three components that is, Thermistor, NPN transistor and 555 Timer IC. You can find more such simple circuits here in this electronic circuits section.


Working Concept

Here the 555 timer IC has been configured in Astable mode so that Alarm (Buzzer) can produce an oscillating sound. In Astable mode, capacitor C charges though resistance R1 and R2, till 2/3 Vcc and discharges through R2 till it reaches to 1/3Vcc. During the charging time OUT PIN 3 of 555 IC remains HIGH and during discharging it remains LOW, thats how it oscillate. We have connected a Buzzer to OUT pin, so that it produce beep sound, when 555 is high. We can control the oscillation frequency of the alarm by adjusting the value of R2 and/or capacitor C.



555 Timer IC

NPN Transistor BC547

Thermistor (10K)

Resistors (1K, 100K, 4.7K)

Variable resistor (1M)

Capacitor (10uF)

Buzzer and Battery (9v)


Circuit Diagram and Explanation

Fire Alarm Circuit Diagram using Thermistor

You can see the circuit diagram of fire alarm in above figure. When there is no FIRE, thermistor remains at 10k ohm. And transistor remains at ON state because there is sufficient voltage across the base-emitter of transistor, which makes it ON. When the Transistor is ON, Pin 4 (RESET) is connected to the Ground, and when Reset pin is Grounded, 555 IC doesn't operate.


Now when we start heating the Thermistor through Fire, its resistance starts to decrease, and when its resistance decreases, the voltage at the base of Transistor starts to decrease and when the voltage becomes less than the operating voltage (base-emitter voltage VBE) of transistor, then transistor becomes OFF. And when transistor becomes OFF, Reset pin of 555 timer IC, gets positive voltage through R3, and 555 IC starts to work and buzzer beeps.


In transistor, usually 0.7v voltage is required across the Base and Emitter, to turn it ON. So we have to carefully adjust the value of Variable resistance RV1 and Thermistor, to make the circuit work properly. To do this remove the thermistor and let RV1 be the grounded, now adjust the value of RV1 to that point, where even slight turning of the RV1 starts the Buzzer. Means from this point, if we decrease the resistance, even very little, Buzzer starts to beep. Now at this point, connect the thermistor again.


We should also note that we can also build a Fire alarm circuit, using DR25 germanium diode, as it works as heat sensor. When DR25 germanium diode is connected in reverse bias, it has a very high reverse resistance and it only conducts at more than 70 degree of room temperature.


Comments (59)

  • aimen's picture

    Can i replace 9v buzzer with siren

    Sep 05, 2015
  • Jayant's picture

    Please be specific, what kind of siren you are talking about? Are you trying to generate siren using some IC? You can connect any siren but circuit will be modified accordingly.

    Oct 06, 2015
  • ganeshraj's picture

    i did this circuit and my speaker comes on as soon as i connect the power. ive looked through it and i dont know what i'm doing wrong. please could you suggest likely errors i would have made. Please it's urgent!!!!!

    Nov 25, 2015
  • Maddy's picture

    If your circuit connections are proper, then you surely need to adjust the Variable Resistor RV1. It has been clearly explained in second last paragraph of the Article above: "remove the thermistor and let RV1 be the grounded, now adjust the value of RV1 to that point, where even slight turning of the RV1 starts the Buzzer"

    Nov 28, 2015
  • kumar's picture

    we have tried a lot to make this project succesfull... but we did not got any output ....about this project can you plzz.. tell that where was the problem in this project

    Feb 06, 2016
  • Maddy's picture

    Check the circuit connections and value of components. Adjust the variable resistor properly, otherwise circuit won' t work. Carefully read the second last para to set the variable resistor

    Feb 08, 2016
  • venkatesh babu's picture
    venkatesh babu

    before connecting the circuit check the resistance under normal temperature and check its resistance when it exposed to heat, now adjust the variable resistor in such a way that its value lies between the thermistor resistance in normal temp and during heating. Generally it will be aroung 3.5K ohm

    Oct 18, 2017
  • akki's picture

    sir ,we had made our circuit but as soon as we connect battery siren is in on state even though thermistor is not heated,can u suggest what correction to be made in circuit

    Feb 17, 2016
  • Jayant's picture

    This is a very common problem and can be easily corrected, just adjust the variable resistor according to the second last paragraph of the article.

    Feb 24, 2016
  • abhishek pratap's picture
    abhishek pratap

    why have you used Resistors (1K, 100K, 4.7K) and npn transistor and what happens if we change the value of resistance.

    Mar 01, 2016
  • Kapil's picture

    sir, what is the use of the transistor in the circuit ?

    Mar 02, 2016
  • Maddy's picture

    Transistor here is working as a Switch, it is clearly explained in the description. Please read the two paragraph below circuit diagram.

    Mar 11, 2016
  • akhila's picture

    can u pls send me block diagram of fire alarm using ic555 my mail id.....

    Mar 03, 2016
  • easin's picture

    what valu may be perfect for Variable Resistor

    Apr 01, 2016
  • Gatumwa's picture

    555 ic there we may change to anather kind of componant which ones?

    Apr 03, 2016
  • katty's picture

    we hve tried the circuit several times out evryting but itdoesnt operate i.e as soon as we connect the battery the buzzer starts beeping evn without buzzer

    Apr 04, 2016
  • Maddy's picture

    Its only the matter of adjusting the Variable Resistor.

    Apr 17, 2016
  • Moni shankar's picture
    Moni shankar

    i am using this circuit as it is..only replaced 1mohm with a 10kohm...and ckt working but only prblem is that output beep sound is not continuous..its beeping in regular (approx after 1sec gap ,just on and off)intetval of time...pls suggest me what to do..

    May 05, 2016
  • Maddy's picture

    This is what it meant to be. 555 is in Astable mode so it beeps in intervals, use monostable mode for continuous beeping.

    May 21, 2016
  • Dan's picture

    What kind of thermistor did you use
    is it NTC, and what is the voltage reading on the thermistor

    May 05, 2016
  • Pooh's picture

    Hey, I have tried many times but connection doesn't really work. I grounded my variable resistor but after adjusting the buzzer still not beep. Can i ask how many pin that you use for variable resistor? Because it have three pin, and i do not know where should connected

    May 12, 2016
  • Maddy's picture

    two pins of Pot have been used, one middle pin and one side pin (any)

    May 21, 2016
  • Rahul's picture

    can i replace variable resistance with simple resistance

    Jun 29, 2016
  • Abhishek's picture

    After finding the threshold resistance, where you want to set the sensitivity of Fire alarm, you can replace Variable resistor with simple one with the value of Threshold.

    Jul 09, 2016
  • Brian O Callaghan's picture
    Brian O Callaghan

    Hi there,
    Thanks for the circuit. I am trying to trigger a relay using a 33k Ohm @ 25 degrees C thermistor. I have attempted this with a 555 timer as a comparator, but have found that the variation in resistance of the thermistor does not allow the 1/3 - 2/3 voltage range to be covered in order to get switching on and off. The relay should trigger at only 30 dec C, thus the low range (from 33k Ohm to approximately 20k Ohm at trigger temperature.) Also, is it possible to leave out the capacitor and R1 and R2 since only the relay must be switched on and off?
    Thanks a million,

    Jul 05, 2016
  • Abhishek's picture

    Resistor R1, R2 and capacitor C has nothing to do with Fire alarm circuit, they are just to set the Frequency of 555's output in astable mode, so that Buzzer can beep periodically, according to that frequency.

    Jul 09, 2016
  • zeedic's picture

    the block diagram of fire alarm system using themistor

    Jul 22, 2016
  • nive's picture

    shall i check the fire alarm circuit using multisim software and how?

    Jul 31, 2016
  • Ankita 's picture

    Can LM35 be used as the thermistor here?if yes then where to connect the 3pins exactly..?thanx!☺

    Jul 31, 2016
  • sam's picture

    Pls you stated Capacitor (10uF),what is the exact voltage of the capacitor

    Aug 26, 2016
  • Abhishek's picture

    It is of 63v rating but you can use any 10uF cap.

    Sep 20, 2016
  • Cherish's picture

    At what specified temperature should the device detect before it alarms?

    Sep 09, 2016
  • Abhishek's picture

    You cant exactly define the Temperature threshold without using any Microcontroller, but you can use Variable resistor to adjust the sensitivity. You can check this article to define temperature range with LM35 sensor: Arduino Based Digital Thermometer

    Sep 20, 2016
  • irfan's picture

    sir what will be the output variable resistor?????

    Sep 15, 2016
  • umesh's picture

    I have found you best website for how to design a circuit from starting to every component is working in circuit ..It is very helpful for freshers like me.
    I am very impress..
    And highly recommend it.

    Sep 22, 2016
  • Abhishek's picture

    Thanks Umesh for your encouraging words!

    Oct 06, 2016
  • milos's picture

    Hi . I have variable resistor , and i don't know how to adjust it( since they are not the same ) . So , is this type of RV usable ? Can u give me some advice how to do that properly , since my sound starts as soon as i connect the circuit . Why is only 1 pin of RV used ? What are those 2 for ? Thanks in advance .

    Oct 28, 2016
  • sindhu's picture

    Hi.can u please clearly explain the connenctions of thermistor and variable resistor please.

    Oct 30, 2016
  • reubenct's picture

    Hi, I tried the circuit with all correct values for components and what I observed was that the transistor was never switching on, i.e, the voltage at base (Vbe) never went below 0.7V. I calculated and got that for Vbe=1V, value of RV1 should be 1M/8 = 125k. My RV1 can go only to minimum of 200k. Please suggest a solution. Thanks

    Nov 09, 2016
  • Abhishek's picture

    Try adjusting (decrease) the value of R4.

    Nov 30, 2016
  • Ram 's picture

    Sir, I have done every thing as shown in the diagram but still it does not works. Please help sir. When i adjust the variable resistor the buzzer beeps continuosly.

    Dec 04, 2016
  • Somanath's picture

    How this project is different from the other fire alarms

    Feb 06, 2017
  • vijay's picture

    hi sir,
    i made all connection as per block diagram shown but even i connect that way it is not working properly .i didn't have 1M variable resistor so i used 1M fixed resistor& instead of 10k thermistor i used 10k fixed resistor (before fire thermistor resistance is 10k so used it ,actually the buzzer need to beep at this time but it is beeping even i use 100k instead of 10k thermistor(i dont have thermistor) ) .thermistor resistance will reduce when fire comes so i replace thermistor with short ckt .so sir tell me neccesary modificatication to work my ckt

    Feb 19, 2017
  • Maddy's picture

    1M is the max value of RV1, and it is set much lesser than 1M, better use Variable resistor as shown.

    Feb 27, 2017
  • shrinjit's picture

    is it sufficient to use a single npn transistor int the above circuit becoz i checked other links wherein they have used 3 transistors ?

    Feb 25, 2017
  • Aaron's picture

    Sir, i have done all the connections made in the diagram, but when i put the power on the buzzer was beeping even though i haven't fire the thermosistor

    Mar 05, 2017
  • CHERRY's picture

    Sir, I have to ask. Will it be possible to have both buzzer and LED outputs? I have tried connecting a LED parallel to the buzzer. The LED did work but the buzzer didn't.

    Mar 14, 2017
  • RAJBBER NRGI's picture

    For both LED and buzzer u have to use also a 1k resister with it otherwise LED will be fuse.
    Then first connect one terminal of resister to the pin 3 thats output terminal then the positive terminal of led to the other terminal of resister and then ground the negative terminal to the ground and then the positive terminal of buzzer connect with the positive side of LED n then groung the negative terminal of buzzer to the ground. Then it will work properly.

    Apr 22, 2017
  • Eggroll's picture

    Sir,I just made the circuit above.But there is a problem,the buzzer keeps beeping as soon as i ground the circuit.The 1M variable resistance is not showing any effect even i changed the variable resistance.Please give me the solution as i need to submit it within a week.
    Thank you

    Mar 23, 2017
  • Eggroll's picture

    This circuit is just a fine circuit and works well.With all the connections being made at correct places,it works. Applying fire to the thermistor , it tkaes around 25 secs to turn the buzzer on.

    Mar 24, 2017
  • Charlie Catindig's picture
    Charlie Catindig

    if you don't mind, is it advisable to use capacitor instead of resistor in a conventional fire alarm and detection system (FDAS)? what is the effect using capacitor? why not a resistor?
    please reply in my personal email, not here.. thanks.

    Mar 24, 2017
  • duncan's picture

    good project mine is working well just needed to play around the variable resistor

    May 09, 2017
  • adebiyi muyiwa's picture
    adebiyi muyiwa

    please can i get the circuit for all the alarm system we have

    Sep 15, 2017
  • mesloy's picture

    The pin 5 of the ic, is it open?

    Oct 31, 2017
  • Mushfiqur Rahman's picture
    Mushfiqur Rahman

    How long will this circuit last on a normal 9V battery (non-rechargeable)?

    Nov 01, 2017
  • Omer's picture

    I have connected all the circuit same as it is but it doesn't work but when i short the transistor buzzer starts

    Nov 13, 2017
  • Abush's picture

    Please can help me I use this circuit but its not run what the problem

    Nov 14, 2017
  • Manthan Sirsikar's picture
    Manthan Sirsikar

    i tried to adjust the variable resister lots of time by putting its one end ground but as i replace it by thermistor without giving any fire it starts beeping plse give me some solution i read out all the content u have written above ........ Thank you...
    waiting for your reply

    Feb 15, 2018

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