In this tutorial, we are going to build a Lithium Battery Charger & Booster Module by combining the TP4056 Li-Ion Battery Charger IC and FP6291 Boost Converter IC for a single-cell Lithium battery. A battery module like this will be very useful when powering our electronic projects with lithium batteries. The module can safely charge a lithium battery and boost its output voltage to a regulated 5V which can be used power most of our development boards like Arduino, NodeMcu, etc. The charging current of our module is set to 1A and the output current is also set to 1A at 5V, however, it can also be easily modified to provide up to 2.5A if required and supported by the battery.
Throughout the tutorial, we will discuss the circuit diagram, how I designed the PCB, how I ordered it, and what kind of problems occurred while soldering the components and testing the circuit. If you are completely new to lithium batteries and charger circuits, do check out the introduction to lithium batteries and Lithium battery charger circuit to get an idea before proceeding with this circuit.
Here we have used PCBWay to provide the PCB boards for this project. In the following sections of the article we have covered in details the complete procedure to design, order and assemble the PCB boards for this lithium battery charger circuit.
- TP4056 Li-Ion Battery Charger IC
- FP6291 Boost Converter IC
- USB Type-A Female Connector
- Micro USB 2.0 B type 5 Pin Connector
- 5× Resistor (2×1k, 1.2k, 12k, 88k)
- 6× Capacitor (2×0.1µf, 2×10µf, 2×20µf)
- 2× LEDs
- 1× Inductor (4.7µH)
- 1× Diode (1N5388BRLG)
- 18650 Lithium cell
Circuit Diagram and Explanation
The circuit diagram for 18650 Lithium Battery Charger & Booster Module is given above. This circuit has two main parts, one is the battery charging circuit, and the second is DC to DC boost converter part. The Booster part is used to boost the battery voltage from 3.7v to 4.5v-6v. Here in this circuit, we used a USB Type-A Female Connector on the Booster side and a Micro USB 2.0 B type 5 Pin Connector on the Charger side. The complete working of the circuit can also be found in the video at the bottom of this page.
The battery charger circuit is designed around a dedicated lithium-ion battery charger TP4056 IC. TP4056 is a complete constant-current/constant-voltage linear charger for single-cell Lithium-ion batteries. Its SOP package and low external component count make the TP4056 ideally suited for portable applications. This IC handles the Battery charging operation by processing the 5V DC input supply received through the Micro USB socket. The LEDs connected with it indicates the charging status.
The DC-DC Boost Converter Circuit is designed using the DC-DC Boost Converter FP6291 IC. This 1 MHz DC-DC Step-Up Boost IC Can be used in the application, for example, getting stable 5V from 3V battery. The Boost Converter circuit gets the input supply through battery terminals (+ and -) is processed by FP6291 IC to give a stable 5V DC supply via the standard USB socket at its output.
Fabricating PCB 18650 Lithium Battery Charger & Booster Module
Now that we understand how the schematics work, we can proceed with building the PCB for our project. You can design the PCB using any PCB software of our choice. Our PCB looks like this below when completed.
The PCB layout for the above circuit is also available for download as Gerber from the link:
Now, that our Design is ready, it is time to get them fabricated using the Gerber file. To get the PCB done is quite easy, simply follow the steps below-
Ordering PCB from PCBWay
Step 1: Get into https://www.pcbway.com/, sign up if this is your first time. Then, in the PCB Prototype tab, enter the dimensions of your PCB, the number of layers, and the number of PCB you require.
Step 2: Proceed by clicking on the ‘Quote Now’ button. You will be taken to a page where to set a few additional parameters if required like the material used, track spacing, etc. But mostly, the default values will work fine.
Step 3: The final step is to upload the Gerber file and proceed with the payment. To make sure the process is smooth, PCBWAY verifies if your Gerber file is valid before proceeding with the payment. This way, you can sure that your PCB is fabrication friendly and will reach you as committed.
Assembling and Testing the 18650 chargers and Booster Module
After a few days, we received our PCB in a neat package and the PCB quality was good as always. The top layer and the bottom layer of the board is shown below.
After assembling all the components and soldered a red and black wire to the B+ and B- pins to connect to our 18650 cells. Since it did not have spot welder with me, I used magnets to secure my connection with the 18650 cells. The assembled module along with the lithium battery is shown below.
The green and yellow LEDs on the board is the charging status of the module. The green LED will glow when the battery is being charged and the Yellow LED will glow charge is completed or the module is waiting for the battery. The micro USB port can be used to charge the battery if the charger is not connected, then neither the green led or yellow led will glow. We can use any 5V charger with this module, just make sure the output current of the charger is 1A or more. The below image shows the module charging our lithium battery, notice the green LED is on.
The output USB port is designed for 5V and 1A. The battery voltage from the 18650 cells is boosted to 5V to power out electronic projects. The below image shows how the module can be used to power an Arduino nano board.
Do note that the maximum output current of the module can be configured as high as 2.5A theoretically, but practically I was not able to get more than 1.5A even when the resistor was set to 2.5A. This might be because of my battery or the boost IC itself. However, if the load current is less than 1A, this low-cost boost circuit will well suffice.
Hope you enjoyed the article and learned something useful if you have any questions, you can leave them in the comment section below or use our forums for other technical questions.